- nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitor
- It acts by inhibiting viral reverse transcriptase, therefore preventing formation of ds-DNA (the pro-virus).
- It is a drug that is usually prescribed in combination therapy because this lowers the possibility of resistance developing.
- Indications as follows:
- HIV affected individuals.
- Reduce progression to AIDS dementia
- Reduce rate of vertical transmission.
- Adverse effects
- Myelosuppression – either macrocytic anaemia or neutropenia
- Administered PO
- Serum T ½ only 1 hour, but it has an intracellular T ½ of 3-4 hours allowing BD dosing.
- It undergoes hepatic glucuronidation and is excreted by the kidney.
- Enzyme inhibitors will increase zidovudine levels.
- Zidovudine may decrease phenytoin levels.